This is a helpful way to think about various questions that can be asked of the text. Within each of the three categories, there is another threefold set of questions, focusing upon author, discourse, and audience. The results look something like this:
Text as Picture (form + content)
- What dramatic portrait did the speaker intend?
- What picture does the discourse present?
- What portrait may the audience have received?
Texts as Windows (portal to historical events and periods)
- What historical information did the speaker intend?
- What historical information does the discourse present?
- What historical information may the audience have received?
Texts as Mirrors (reflection of the interests and topics of the believing community)
- What did the speaker intend to say about the subject?
- What does the discourse say about the topic?
- What did the audience understand about the theme?